Daily Use: give 4-8 mL (1000-2000 IU) per 500 kg horse by mouth or top-dress on feed.
Pre-Competition: give 12-20 mL (3000-5000 IU) per 500 kg horse 6-12 hours prior to competition or stressful event.
Guaranteed Analysis: 250 IU d-alpha-tocopherol per mL
Research has revealed that vitamin E varies in its potency, based on whether it is natural or synthetic. The chemical structures of synthetic and natural vitamin E differ. Natural vitamin E is recognized as
d-alpha-tocopherol, and is made up of a single isomer. Synthetic vitamin E, termed
dl-alpha tocopherol, contains a mixture of eight different isomers, four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. Of these eight, only one is molecularly equivalent to natural vitamin E. Sources of natural vitamin E, especially Nano•E, more effectively raise serum levels when compared to synthetic, as shown in Figure 1.
Alpha-tocopherol is the form of vitamin E that is most abundant in the body, and is therefore the most appropriate for use in supplementation.
To make alpha-tocopherol stable for use in most supplements, it must be chemically joined with an acid during manufacture, a process called esterification. The acid, in this case acetate, acts as a padlock or protective cap that shields alpha-tocopherol from the damages caused by exposure to oxidative forces. Without esterification, alpha-tocopherol can quickly denature, losing its antioxidant properties and rendering it ineffective.
Once ingested, esterified alpha-tocopherol is subjected to normal digestive enzymes. A certain group of enzymes called esterases are chemically capable of unlocking the padlock created through esterification. Once free, alpha-tocopherol is available for absorption with its antioxidant properties intact.
Fat-soluble vitamins like vitamin E must be offered to horses in a way that maximizes absorption. Because it is not mixed with other ingredients, the vitamin E in Nano•E does not need to be protected by esterification, but it must become water-soluble or dispersible in liquid. This presents a challenge: As everyone knows, oil and water don’t mix.
Researchers developed a method by which fat-soluble vitamins can be absorbed with great efficiency. Because of its oily nature, vitamin E is hydrophobic (water-shunning). To overcome this, researchers use proprietary technology to encapsulate the vitamin E in nanoparticles and then surround each nanoparticle with a hydrophilic (water-loving) outer layer. The hydrophilic outer layer, as illustrated in Figure 2, allows the nanoparticles to be rapidly and evenly released in water-based environments such as the gastrointestinal tract. The differences in bioavailability among vitamin E sources are shown in Figure 3.
The greatest benefit of this unique delivery system is an increase in the bioavailability of vitamin E. The more vitamin E that is absorbed into the bloodstream, the more available it is for use as a body-wide antioxidant essential for tissue repair and for its imperative roles in various body systems.